Watercolor Tutorial | How to Batik

With watercolor batik, wax is used as a resist—and if you’ve ever used masking fluid on watercolor paper, you understand how a resist works. The wax blocks the areas that aren’t intended to receive paint. The materials I use in my batik process are very simple: rice paper, watercolor and melted paraffin wax. Batking isn’t an exact science, so be prepared for mistakes such as unintentional drips of wax and oozing color. Believe it or not, these accidents actually add to the look of the piece.

—Kathie George

 

how to batik
Tuscan Window (watercolor and batik on paper, 16×12) by Kathie George

 

Batiking Supply list

Oriental Paper: Awagami Ginwashi rice paper is my favorite, but many others will work. Each one will give the watercolor painting a different look.

Watercolors: I use Winsor & Newton and Holbein.

Wax Brushes: Designate brushes that you’ll use only in wax. I prefer inexpensive natural hair paint brushes, such as camel or squirrel mix: a 1½-inch flat, a No. 8 round and a smaller No. 3 round with long fibers. Beware of using brushes that are too tiny—they rarely carry enough wax and the wax will cool before you can apply it to the paper. In general, you’ll find that the paint brush bristles get stiff when the wax cools, but they soften up again when dipped into hot wax.

Watercolor Brushes: Use your regular watercolor brushes for applying paint. I typically use only three: a 1½-inch flat (Loew Cornell 4550), a 1-inch flat (Simply Simmons) and a ½-inch flat.

Miscellaneous Supplies:

  • Old electric frying pan with temperature control or a wax/glue pot (made to heat wax to safe temperatures)
  • Permanent, waterproof pen, such as a Pigma Micron 05
  • Iron
  • Paraffin wax (also used for canning; can be found in most any grocery store)
  • Newspapers
  • Waxed paper
  • Freezer paper
  • Cretacolor Pastel Pencils can be helpful

 

Preparation for Batik Process

Although many papers can be used, Awagami Ginwashi is my favorite and it comes in large sheets, approximately 25×37 inches. The first step is to cut the paper to the size you need. Or, if you prefer a deckled edge, “draw” a line of water with a wet brush. Use only a bit of water—just enough to wet a thin line. Then tear along this line with your fingers—presto! Deckled edge.

Prepare your sketch on white paper and place it under the transparent rice paper. Use a permanent, waterproof ink pen, such as a Pigma Micron 05, to trace the design onto the smooth side of the rice paper.

Melt the paraffin wax in a device with a temperature control. An electric frying pan works well, as do small wax/glue pots (see the photo of my work area) that automatically heat to the desired temperature without worry. Melt the wax slowly in a well-ventilated area to 200 to 225° Fahrenheit—otherwise the wax could catch fire. Note: The wax shouldn’t smoke. Next, place a piece of waxed paper beneath the rice paper to keep it from sticking to your work surface, and leave it in place throughout the entire waxing process.

 

Wax On

Understanding how to use wax as a resist can be the most challenging part of the process. My “waxing diagrams” (below) show where to place the wax. The diagrams included with each step of the demo show the wax applications I planned for the painting. After you get a few pieces under your belt, you’ll no longer need the diagrams.

To wax, dip an old brush into the hot wax and spread it onto the paper (you can’t clean wax out of the brushes, but you can reuse them for other batik paintings). Be careful: If you get too much wax on the brush, it’ll surge outward onto the paper. Start with just a bit until you get the hang of it. Leave the brush in the hot wax between layers so that it will always be ready to go.

 

Add Color

The wax dries almost instantly, so the rice paper will be ready to paint right away. Because the paper is transparent, it’s helpful to place it onto a white surface while painting. A piece of freezer paper (shiny side up) works well for this. Just use your regular watercolor brushes for the washes.

Pick up only a small amount of paint—rice paper has no sizing, so the less paint in your brush the more control you’ll have. Sometimes the paint will run no matter what you do. As the paint moves outward, avoid a hard edge by taking extra water in your brush and softening the edge, then quickly and gently blot with a paper towel to absorb extra water.

It’s important to let the paper dry thoroughly before applying more wax. If you apply wax to wet or damp paper it won’t be able to soak into the paper fibers. You can use a hair dryer to speed the drying time, but be careful not to melt the wax. If you do happen to melt the wax and it spreads, that’s OK. You can add paint where you need it later, after you’ve removed the wax.

 

Crumple It Up

When you’re finished applying layers of wax and color washes, let the paper dry. Then cover the entire front of the paper with another coat of wax to be sure you’ve hit every area at least once. When this layer of wax has cooled, peel the rice paper from the waxed paper. Then gently crinkle the rice paper into a ball. Small cracks may form in the wax.

Flatten the paper, being careful not to brush or shake off loose pieces of wax, then apply one more wash over the paper using any color mix from your palette. Some of the wash may go through the cracks, but most will bead up on the surface of the wax. Without waiting for the paint to dry, coat the entire front with wax one final time, going right over the wet beads of color and sealing them into the wax.

 

Wax Off

Lay out several sheets of newspaper and place your batik on top. Make a “batik sandwich” by laying about three more sheets of newspaper on top of your piece. This will be enough newspaper to allow the heat to penetrate but still soak up plenty of wax. Using an iron set to hot (the cotton setting), press the pile. The heat will melt the wax and the newspaper will soak it up. When the newspapers become fairly saturated—you’ll see the wax bleed through—replace them with fresh papers above and below, and continue. Repeat this process three or four times until the newspapers remain clean and all the wax has been removed.

 

Finishing Touches

Two things work well for adding color to any areas that might need it. First, try painting it. Painting on rice paper after the wax has been removed will feel completely different. Because a tiny bit of wax remains on the surface, you’ll have to coax the paint into the paper by wiggling your brush and “tickling” the paint into the paper, but once you’ve done so, the color will stay where you place it. For small touches of opaque color, or when outlining is needed, pastel pencils are fun and easy. Finally, mount the batik on a piece of white or off-white matboard using double-sided or linen tape. I often float it so that the deckled edges show.

Subscribe to Watercolor Artist magazine and never miss an issue.

Watercolor Tutorial | Step by Step of Tuscan Window

 

how to batik

Prepare the Work Area

 

how to batik

Getting Started

In this demo, I worked from a picture (above). Next, determine the size of your paper and cut accordingly, prepare a sketch, and melt the paraffin wax.

The steps include each layer of watercolor and the corresponding wax diagrams. The darkened areas on these diagrams indicate the wax placement for the five, successive layers of wax. The wax should go onto the paper smooth and clear. (Tip: To better see what you are waxing, try placing a piece of dark paper underneath).

In batik, you work from light to dark. So, the areas that remain white are always the first places to be waxed. These are shown in Wax Diagram 1 (below). After that, each layer of wax is simply saving the next lightest value of color. As you near the end it gets difficult to tell what’s waxed and what is not waxed! Keep working. When the wax is removed it’s always a wonderful surprise.

 

how to batik how to batik

1. Wash Lightest Color Value

Draw your image onto the rice paper using a Pigma Micron 05 pen.  Wax the areas you want to save with white, then wash on the very lightest color value.

 

 

 

how to batik how to batik

2. Begin Saving More Areas with Wax

As the colors dry, wax more areas you want to save. The waxed areas resist any extra colors that are added. Apply another wash of watercolor, only slightly darker than the first.

 

 

how to batik how to batik

3. Continue to Paint Medium Values

 

 

 

how to batik how to batik

4. Continue Layering Darker Washes

 

 

how to batik how to batik

5. Allow Color to Run

As long as the edges are softened, allow the colors to run and enhance the piece.

 

 

how to batik how to batik

6. Add Depth

Wax everything except where you want the darkest darks to go. This separates objects and adds depth.

 

 

how to batik

Tuscan Window by Kathie George (finished work)

 

An additional full watercolor batik demonstration by Kathie George can be found in the August 2011 issue of Watercolor Artist.

For more fun with watercolors, catch this clip from Karlyn Holman.



 

MORE RESOURCES FOR WATERCOLOR ARTISTS

Subscribe to Watercolor Artist magazine

Watch watercolor art workshops on demand at ArtistsNetwork.TV

Get unlimited access to over 100 art instruction ebooks

Online seminars for fine artists

Sign up for your Watercolor Artist email newsletter & download a FREE issue of Watercolor Artist magazine

You may also like these articles:

11 thoughts on “Watercolor Tutorial | How to Batik

  1. marlene

    I’m following the article in Watercolor Artist. So I have one question: is Kinwashi by Awagami the same as Awagami Ginwashi. I’m looking at the Daniel Smith catalog and there is nothing about Ginwashi only Kinwashi. I wondering if this is just a typo in the article. Or Kinwashi is different from Ginwashi where can I find it?

  2. artistjuana

    Just read the full article in the magazine which COMPLETELY explained each step, including use of iron and newspapers to remove the wax. If I had not read the print version first, I would be just as confused as the people who commented above. I, too, was hoping for a video type demo in live action. At the very least, a mention of the preferred type of paper (Awagami Ginwshi) and the method to remove the wax.

    BUT I really love the style and all of the artwork in the magazine article!

  3. laurels

    I’m no sure about the rice paper. I wish there was a video. Is the rice paper what you’re final painting is on?
    It seems too delicate. Can you use the same technique (w/o wrinkling at the end of course) on regular water color paper? I’m confused.

  4. heartlady

    I think that this would have been much better as a video. I am an experienced watercolorist, but there is no way that I could try this technique from the information given here. Disappointing, to say the least.

  5. marietrnr

    I have done a little batik on paper.
    Supplies needed:
    1. Rice paper in a roll from Michaels will do just fine
    2. I have used Gulf Oil canning wax works fine too
    3. Use a metal container and put it on your electric griddle that you have adjust the temperature to just melting or a double boiler and keep at a low temperature
    4. After you have completed the layering and the wax is dry, simply scrunch up the paper a little this will break up the wax; a lot will make it look different than a little. I would suggest trying a small piece of rice paper first and see which works better for you. Use a piece the size and length that would go around the cover of a home made book. These samples make wonderful book covers, journals, or even a greeting card.
    5. Smooth out the painting on a towel and place a clean piece of rice paper which is a little larger than your painting and iron over the surface of the paper until the wax has melted and transferred to the larger piece of rice paper on top. I have gone back in with additional colors, gold, silver powders or paint to enhance it further, sign it and you are ready to mat and frame it.

    Save the cover piece of rice paper you will already have a resist on that piece that you can kinda work backwards and create another painting. The painting then should be mounted on another piece of rice paper about two inches larger than the painting. Place a mat over your painting place on thin foam core and pop in a frame you are good to go. Hope this helps you. Marie

  6. Ann

    This lacks a lot of information. It would have been nice to see a supplies list. What type of rice paper are you using? Is it prepared in any special way? How do you melt the wax? How do you remove the wax? Any trouble-shooting suggestions (there are always issues of some sort that happen).

COMMENT