Van Gogh did all three, according to a researcher quoted in the Guardian. In the last year before his death, the artist worked at breakneck pace, often running out of canvas. Some of the cloth he painted on is believed to be tablecloth or tea towels, possibly from the mental hospital where he stayed in 1889. (Red accents in the cloth are visible where the paint is thin.)
And last month, an X-ray revealed a lost work, Wild Vegetation, under The Ravine, which was painted four months later while he was in the asylum. It impresses me that Van Gogh was so driven to paint that he didn’t let a lack of supplies—or sales—stop him.